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Posted: October 1st, 2022

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections

Module 7 Discussion Postings
(Answer this post in just five sentences with citations or references in APA format)
Pick one of the statements below and copy the statement in the subject line. Then in the message box, write whether this statement is a fact or if it is fiction. Be sure to put your source in your response.
• If a woman does not immediately void after sexual intercourse, she increases her risk of a urinary tract infection.
• Drinking cranberry juice will prevent urinary tract infections.
• If you have a kidney stone, there is less than 50% chance it will be passed spontaneously.
• Urinary incontinence is inevitable as you grow older.
• Eating certain foods, like diets high in protein, will cause kidney stones.
• Most kidney stones are composed of calcium so individuals should follow a low calcium diet to prevent further stones.
• If you have kidney stones, you will be at increased risk for gallstones.
• If an individual goes into renal failure, the kidneys will not recover and the individual will be on dialysis for life.

Module 8 Discussion Postings
(Answer this post in five sentences using citations references in APA format)
In this module, you have studied a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. For this discussion, choose one of the following common GI complaints. Using terminology the patient would understand, explain to your patient what is happening in his or her body on a pathophysiologic level. Add at least one recommendation for further testing or treatment of that condition. You may need to do some further research besides the material found in your text.
Common gastrointestinal complaints:
• Viral gastroenteritis
• Constipation
• Irritable bowel disease
• Hemorrhoids
• GERD or heartburn
• Diverticulosis/diverticulitis
• Peptic ulcer
• Gallstones

Module 9 Discussion Postings (Answer this post in just five sentences with citations or references in APA format)
Respond to the following statement. When you first view the discussion board, it will say that you can not read other student’s postings. You must make an original posting first. You will not see other student’s comments until you have posted yours. Remember, you must make two responses to other students’ discussion postings.

Criteria for grading discussion board questions can be found in the syllabus and Introductory module.
It is estimated that there are 57 million individuals with prediabetes. Prediabetes is considered if an individual has a fasting blood glucose level of 100 – 125. Although there is not good trending data at this time, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger adults is increasing. What is causing this? What kinds of risk factors contribute to the increaseing prediabetes population? What can healthcare workers do to help slow this trend?

Module 10 Discussion Postings (Answer this post in just five sentences with citations or references in APA format)
Pick one of the neurological diseases we are studying this week and select two of the common signs and/or symptoms of the disease. Explain the pathophysiology behind the sign and/or symptom.
• Put the name of the disease in the subject line of your post.
• In the message box, type in the 2 sign and/or symptoms and your explanation about why they are occuring in this disease.
• As you explain the pathophysiology, do NOT copy directly from the textbook.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections, affecting millions of people worldwide each year (CDC, 2021). While often dismissed as a minor annoyance, UTIs can seriously impact quality of life and occasionally lead to more serious complications if left untreated. This paper will explore current understandings of UTIs, including risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic testing, and treatment options. The goal is to provide an informative yet compassionate overview of this prevalent health issue.
Risk Factors
Certain behaviors and biological factors increase one’s chances of developing a UTI. As mentioned in the previous discussion, delaying urination after sexual intercourse allows bacteria entry into the urethra, thus raising risk (Miller & Skoog, 2018, p. 23). However, individual circumstances vary greatly. Other common risk factors include a history of prior UTIs, sexual activity in general, spermicide or diaphragm use, family history, and anatomical abnormalities (CDC, 2021).
Post-menopausal women face higher risk due to changes in vaginal flora and loss of estrogen’s protective effects on the urogenital tract (Raz & Stamm, 1993). Pregnancy can also impact UTI risk, with up to 8% of expectant women experiencing at least one infection (Smaill & Vazquez, 2015). Catheter use, whether short or long-term, bypasses the body’s normal defenses and introduces bacteria directly into the bladder (Gupta et al., 2011). Diabetes is another risk factor, as high blood glucose levels allow bacteria to thrive (CDC, 2021).
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Classic UTI symptoms include burning pain or discomfort during urination, frequent and urgent urination, and noticing blood in the urine (CDC, 2021). However, symptoms can vary depending on the infection’s location and severity. For example, kidney infections tend to cause flank pain, fever, nausea or vomiting in addition to urinary symptoms (CDC, 2021). Diagnosis involves laboratory testing of a clean-catch urine sample, looking for signs of infection like white blood cells, nitrites, leukocyte esterase or bacterial growth (Nicolle, 2014).
Treatment and Prevention
Most uncomplicated UTIs are effectively treated with a short course of oral antibiotics targeting the culprit bacteria, usually E. coli (Nicolle, 2014). For resistant or recurrent infections, healthcare providers may recommend longer treatment, alternative antibiotics, or low-dose maintenance regimens (Nicolle, 2014). Staying well hydrated by drinking plenty of water, emptying the bladder regularly and completely, and wiping from front to back after using the toilet can help flush out bacteria and reduce risk of infection (CDC, 2021).
Cranberry products may provide some protection against UTIs, likely due to cranberry’s ability to prevent bacteria from adhering to bladder walls (Howell et al., 2010). However, their effectiveness can vary depending on dosage and formulation. When UTIs do occur, seeking prompt medical evaluation and adhering to the full prescribed treatment plan is important to resolve symptoms and prevent complications or recurrence (Nicolle, 2014). With care and management, most individuals can effectively reduce their UTI risk and frequency over time.
Special Considerations
Some populations face unique UTI challenges. For example, pregnant women must balance UTI treatment with fetal safety, often choosing oral antibiotics only if symptoms are severe (Smaill & Vazquez, 2015). Post-menopausal women may benefit from low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy to restore protective flora and pH levels (Raz & Stamm, 1993). Individuals with spinal cord injuries relying on catheters for bladder management require specialized hygiene and drainage protocols (Gupta et al., 2011). Close monitoring and multidisciplinary care help these vulnerable groups minimize infection risk.
UTIs can also affect men, though less commonly than women. Risk factors include sexual practices, anatomical abnormalities, prostate issues and poor hygiene (Nicolle, 2014). Symptoms tend to be less obvious, potentially leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment (Nicolle, 2014). Healthcare providers must consider non-typical presentations in these patient populations. When infections do occur, comprehensive care addresses both infection resolution and any underlying risk factors.

In summary, UTIs represent a widespread public health concern. While usually not life-threatening, they can seriously impact quality of life and occasionally lead to more serious complications. A multifaceted approach considers biological, behavioral and individual psychosocial factors. With awareness, preventive strategies and prompt treatment when needed, most individuals can effectively manage their UTI risk long-term. Continued research also works to improve diagnostics, expand treatment options and inform evidence-based prevention recommendations tailored to diverse populations and circumstances. Overall, a compassionate, multidisciplinary approach best serves both individual and community health regarding these common infections.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Urinary tract infection (UTI). https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/for-patients/common-illnesses/uti.html
Gupta, K., Hooton, T. M., Naber, K. G., Wullt, B., Colgan, R., Miller, L. G., Moran, G. J., Nicolle, L. E., Raz, R., Schaeffer, A. J., & Soper, D. E. (2011). International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(5), e103–e120. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq257
Howell, A. B., Vorsa, N., Der Marderosian, A., & Foo, L. Y. (2010). Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from cranberries. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(27), 26. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1010074
Miller, L. G., & Skoog, C. (2018). Urinary tract infections. In J. D. Sobel (Ed.), Diseases caused by bacteria (pp. 21–36). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98785-9_2
Nicolle, L. E. (2014). Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Urologic Clinics of North America, 41(1), 60–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2013.09.004
Raz, R., & Stamm, W. E. (1993). A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. New England Journal of Medicine, 329(11), 753–756. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199309093291102
Smaill, F., & Vazquez, J. C. (2015). Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015(8), CD000490. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000490.pub3

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