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Posted: March 13th, 2023

Psychological Perspectives Comparison

Psychological Perspectives Comparison
Key People/Theorists Main Ideas Strengths Weaknesses
Cognitive Perspective

Behavioral Perspective

Psychodynamic Perspective

Humanistic Perspective

Neuroscience Perspective

The five major perspectives of modern psychology are important to understand because they are central to other key concepts and theories throughout the course. For example, you will learn about them again in our discussion about personality and psychological disorders. For this assignment, using the Psychological Perspectives Comparison templateLinks to an external site., fill in the table to identify the key people and main ideas, as well as what you find compelling and what you don’t about each of the five major perspectives in psychology.
Your chart should:
• Include at least 2 bullet points in each box
• Bullet points do not have to be in complete sentences (but should have enough explanation for each point to be clear and understandable)
• Should be in your own words (don’t just copy/paste from the book or a website – break down the ideas in your own words to explain what these perspectives are all about)
• Should include a list of references used in APA format following the template (this list should include at minimum your lessons and your textbook).
• In-text citations are not required (remember, this will be in your own words so don’t copy/paste)
• Be informed by content from your readings, lessons, and research this week.

Psychological Perspective Comparison

Perspective Key People/Theorists Main Ideas Strengths Weaknesses
Cognitive Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser, George Miller Emphasizes the role of mental processes in thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making. Our thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes impact our behavior. – Offers insight into how we process information and make decisions – Provides a scientific basis for studying mental processes – May oversimplify complex human behavior – Ignores the role of emotions and social context in shaping behavior
Behavioral B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson Behavior is shaped by the environment and the consequences that follow. Learning occurs through reinforcement and punishment. – Offers a clear cause-and-effect explanation for behavior – Has practical applications in behavior modification and therapy – Ignores internal mental processes and emotions – Assumes that all behavior can be explained through conditioning
Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler Unconscious thoughts and early childhood experiences shape our behavior and personality. The mind is divided into conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels. – Emphasizes the importance of early experiences in shaping personality – Offers a unique perspective on human behavior – Difficult to test empirically – Ignores the influence of the environment on behavior
Humanistic Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers People have the ability to make conscious choices and direct their own lives. Self-actualization is the ultimate goal of human behavior. – Emphasizes the importance of individual experience and subjective perception – Has practical applications in therapy and counseling – Lacks empirical evidence to support its claims – Ignores the role of biology and unconscious processes in shaping behavior
Neuroscience Michael Gazzaniga, Roger Sperry, Antonio Damasio Behavior and mental processes are rooted in the biology of the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience research provides insight into how the brain influences behavior. – Offers a scientific explanation for behavior and mental processes – Has practical applications in medicine and neuroscience research – Can be reductionistic, ignoring the influence of environment and social context on behavior – Lacks insight into the subjective experience of human behavior
References:

Myers, D. G., & DeWall, C. N. (2019). Psychology (12th ed.). Worth Publishers.
Cherry, K. (2022, January 12). 5 major perspectives in psychology. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/psychology-4014669.

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