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Posted: July 26th, 2023

Polypharmacy Interview and Client Teaching Plan

Polypharmacy Interview and Client Teaching Plan
Module 01 Content
Many people in the US, particularly the elderly, take more than one prescribed medication. CDC (2014) reported that between 2009 and 2012 nearly 48% of persons asked used at least one prescription drug, 22% used three or more prescription drugs, and nearly 11% used five or more.

In a recent study published by the Mayo Clinic, seven out of 10 Americans take at least one prescription drug. The most commonly prescribed drug is antibiotics — taken by 17 percent of Americans — followed by antidepressants and opioids — each taken by 13 percent of Americans. In addition, findings showed that:
o Even more staggering than the CDC findings, currently more than half of Americans take two prescription medications, and 20 percent of Americans are on at least five prescription medications.
o More women than men receive prescription medications.
o Antidepressant prescriptions are more common among women than men, and are most common among women ages 50 to 64.

When people take multiple medications, there is a greater risk for confusion about which medications are taken, when they are taken, and what they are being taken for. There is also a higher risk for drug interactions and increased side effects and adverse reactions.

Sometimes because of the sheer number of medications being prescribed, they may be forgotten, become too much of a bother, or a financial burden which can significantly impact client compliance and lead to poor health outcomes.
In this written assignment, you will be conducting an interview of a client who is taking multiple prescribed medications (three or more) and submitting a written paper describing the findings from the interview. You will then develop a Client Teaching Plan. Your instructor will assist you in the selection of the client. You must achieve a “pass” in this assignment to satisfactorily fulfill the requirements for the Pharmacology course.

The three parts of this assignment are:

Conduct an interview of a client who is taking multiple medications (polypharmacy). You must prepare the client before the interview by explaining why you are conducting the interview. You can say “my assignment is to find out about the medications you are taking so I can determine if you need more information about what you are taking”. You must always get permission from the client to conduct the interview and you must tell the client how the information will be used. You can say, “I will not be using your name in the information I share and I will be submitting it to my instructor only for this student assignment”. If there is important information that needs to be communicated to you, your doctor, family, or nurse, my instructor will assist me in following up on this”. Tell the client you will take no more than 30-45 minutes for the interview.

There may be a family member or significant other present during the interview. That is fine. Be sure to identify who answered a question and if possible always have the client answer first. Always thank the client (and others) when you complete the interview.

Do not use recording equipment for this interview. Have a notepad and pencil or pen and explain that you will be taking notes. When the interview is over, go to a quiet place and take some time to fill in any information you did not jot down. If you wait, you will not remember.

When setting the environment for the interview, make sure the client (and others) is comfortable and you are comfortably seated facing the client. If possible, do the interview in a quiet place. Ask questions slowly giving the client time to answer. Pay attention to the client’s hearing and ability to respond to the questions. Be sure your non-verbal communication demonstrates you are calm and relaxed.

Use the following interview question guidelines when conducting the interview. Be aware that the client may not be able to answer each of the questions with detailed information. Collect as much information as the client is able and willing to give you. Remember you are the interviewer so you will be collecting information and not making any comments about the information shared by the client except to ask for further clarification if you are not sure what was said or need more detail if it is available.

4. What medications are you taking?
5. Before the interview research each of the medications. In your paper include the reason for each medication, the drug classification, the route of administration, the dose, and possible side effects/adverse reactions.

For the following questions, paraphrase the client’s answers for your written paper.

6. How long have you taken each these medications?
7. Do you know why you are taking these medications?
8. Who told you about the medications and why you need to take them? Were you able to ask any questions about the medications and if so were they answered so you understood what was said?
9. How do you feel about taking these medications?
10. Are you taking other medication purchased “over the counter” such as in a drug store? If so, what is it and why are you taking it.
11. How and when do you take your medications?
12. Do you have any difficulty taking the medications? If so, what happens and how do you deal with any difficulties.
13. Have you ever felt any uncomfortable feelings and/or body reactions to taking these medications? If so, what were they and how were they handled?
14. If you had the above reaction, did they take you off the medication and/or replace it with another medication? Were you told why this happened?
15. Do you have any reason not to take the medications?
16. Have you ever not taken the medication? If so, what was the reason?

Ask a final question about whether the client would like to tell you anything further about their medications.
Write a paper describing your research and findings about the medications being taken and the results of the interview. Report your findings in a 3-5 page written paper. In your paper include the reason for each medication, the drug classification, the route of administration, the dose, and possible side effects/adverse reactions.
Use accurate and appropriate spelling and grammar and APA Editorial Format for sources used in your written paper.
Develop a teaching plan for this client based on your findings. Based on the findings from the interview, develop a 2-3 page teaching plan to include the following:

17. List one goal for this teaching plan
18. Describe two to three teaching resources that might be used
19. Identify two teaching strategies that can be used based on the client interviewed
20. List specific client instructions regarding the medications and what adverse reactions they should be aware of/and what to do
21. Identify at least one factor that may negatively influence adherence to the medications and how it can be overcome
22. If, appropriate, describe how the family might be involved in ensuring the client is on a proper and safe medication regime

Polypharmacy Interview and Client Teaching Plan

Polypharmacy, the concurrent use of multiple medications, is a common phenomenon in the United States, particularly among the elderly population. The CDC’s (2014) report highlights that a significant proportion of individuals use multiple prescription drugs, with approximately 22% taking three or more and nearly 11% taking five or more medications. More recent studies from the Mayo Clinic reveal that around 70% of Americans now take at least one prescription drug, with antibiotics, antidepressants, and opioids being among the most frequently prescribed drugs. The implications of polypharmacy are multifaceted, including increased risks of drug interactions, confusion, and adverse reactions. This article focuses on conducting an interview with a client taking multiple medications and developing a client teaching plan based on the findings.

The Interview Process:
The interview aims to gather comprehensive information about the medications the client is taking, the reasons for their usage, dosages, possible side effects, and the client’s experiences and perceptions regarding these medications. It is crucial to create a comfortable and relaxed environment for the interview, ensuring the client’s hearing and ability to respond are taken into consideration.

The interview questions include:

What medications are you taking?
How long have you taken each of these medications?
Do you know why you are taking these medications?
Who informed you about the medications and the reasons for taking them? Were you able to ask any questions, and if so, were they adequately addressed?
How do you feel about taking these medications?
Are you taking any over-the-counter medications? If so, what are they, and why are you taking them?
How and when do you take your medications?
Do you encounter any difficulties in taking the medications? If so, how do you deal with them?
Have you experienced any uncomfortable feelings or adverse reactions to these medications? If so, what were they, and how were they managed?
If you experienced adverse reactions, were the medications discontinued or replaced with others? Were you informed about the reasons for these changes?
Do you have any reasons for not taking the medications?
Have you ever missed taking the medications? If so, what were the reasons?
Research and Findings:
Following the interview, the medications mentioned by the client must be thoroughly researched. This research should encompass the reason for each medication, the drug classification, the route of administration, the prescribed dosage, and the potential side effects or adverse reactions associated with each drug. This comprehensive investigation will facilitate a better understanding of the client’s medication regimen and ensure accurate and informed client teaching.

Client Teaching Plan:
Based on the findings from the interview and the research on the medications, a client teaching plan can be developed to promote medication adherence, safety, and optimal health outcomes. The teaching plan should include the following components:

Goal: The primary goal of the teaching plan is to enhance the client’s understanding and compliance with their medication regimen to improve overall health and well-being.

Teaching Resources: Two to three teaching resources can be identified, such as pamphlets, online materials, or educational videos, that provide comprehensive information about each medication and its proper usage.

Teaching Strategies: Tailored teaching strategies can be employed, taking into account the client’s individual characteristics and learning preferences. Visual aids, demonstration, and verbal explanations can be utilized to ensure effective communication and comprehension.

Client Instructions: Specific instructions regarding the medications, including the prescribed dosages, timing of administration, and potential side effects or adverse reactions to be aware of, should be clearly conveyed to the client.

Addressing Adherence Challenges: Identifying factors that may negatively influence medication adherence is essential. Strategies to overcome these challenges, such as simplifying the medication schedule or addressing financial concerns, should be integrated into the teaching plan.

Involvement of Family: If appropriate, involving family members in the client’s medication management can further support adherence. Family members can be educated about the medications, their potential effects, and the importance of maintaining the prescribed regimen.

Polypharmacy presents both opportunities and challenges in healthcare, particularly for the elderly population. Conducting an interview with clients taking multiple medications and developing a client teaching plan based on the findings can significantly enhance medication adherence, safety, and overall health outcomes. By understanding the client’s medication regimen and addressing potential adherence obstacles, healthcare professionals can play a pivotal role in optimizing the client’s well-being.

APA References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Health, United States, 2013: With Special Feature on Prescription Drugs. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Qato, D. M., Wilder, J., Schumm, L. P., Gillet, V., Alexander, G. C., & K. R. (2016). Changes in Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medication and Dietary Supplement Use Among Older Adults in the United States, 2005 vs 2011. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(4), 473

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