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Posted: August 23rd, 2023

NR 546 Week 7 Case Study- child and adolescent

NR 546 Week 7 Case Study- child and adolescent
Subjective Objective
The client is an 7-year-old male accompanied by his mother and 9-year-old brother.

Client’s Chief Complaints:
“My son is getting in trouble at school due to his behaviorl. He has endless energy; he can’t sit still. When he plays, he is too rough with other kids.”

History of Present Illness
The mother presents with the client due to academic and behavioral concerns. The mother presents a school report that states that he cannot stay seated, frequently calls out in class, is disorganized, cannot complete his assignments, and has been known to be disrespectful to adults. According to his mother, he is very impatient, distractable, and impulsive.

Past psychiatric history: At age 4, the child was in a Head Start Program, and it was noted that he was demonstrating extreme hyperactivity, poor impulse control, and difficulty sustaining focus. Peer interactions were marked by aggression, such as kicking and biting others. When told “no,” he would have extreme temper tantrums, where he would cry, scream, and destroy property. Such behaviors resulted in being permanently expelled from the program. At age 5, he was evaluated and diagnosed with ADHD, combined type. Medication was not prescribed at that time due to age.
Past Medical History: healthy
Perinatal history: full-term pregnancy, uneventful. NSVD. Breastfed x 5 months.
Developmental: mother reports client demonstrates age-appropriate gross and fine motor skills. He is able to dress and undress, can tie his shoes, and colors within the lines; he can balance on one foot, catch a tennis ball, and ride a bicycle with training wheels.
Family History
• Father is alive and well.
• Mother is alive, has anxiety
• One brother, age 10, alive and well
Social History
• Lives with parents and brother
• 1st grader at local public school
• does not have any friends
Trauma history: no reports of trauma
Review of Systems
• appetite good, weight stable
• sleeps 5-7 hours at night; difficulty falling asleep
Allergies: NKDA
Physical Examination:
Physical Examination (Obtained by Pediatrician 2 Days Earlier)
Height 48″, weight: 85lb
Vital signs: B/P, 100/60; P, 78; R, 16; T, 98.4
General: Well-nourished 7-year-old male
HEENT: PERRLA, EOMI, vision is 20/20, and hearing acuity is unremarkable.
Neck: No masses
Pulmonary: No wheezing, rhonchi, or rales
Cardiac: S1, S2
Abdomen: No distension, bowel sounds × four quadrants, no masses or hernias
Lymph nodes: No swelling
Extremities: 2+ pulses bilaterally
Skin: No lesions or edema
Neuro: CN II-XII intact

Mental status exam:
Appearance: a well-nourished 6-year-old male who appears to be stated age. He is dressed in a striped collared shirt, jeans, and sneakers, appropriate for age and weather. Hygiene and grooming are good.
Alertness and Orientation: fully oriented to person‚ place‚ time‚ and situation, Alert
Behavior: He separates easily from his mother and brother to come with the interviewer. When he enters the office, he sits in the chair, puts his hands on the desk, and states, “Let’s get to work.” Initially, he stays seated with good posture, but after several minutes, he becomes hyperactive and cannot stay seated. Boundaries are poor, and he often grabs objects off the desk. He frequently interrupts.
Speech: Speech is spontaneous. At times, tone is loud. The rate is fast, and he talks excessively. He has a mild lisp and some age-appropriate articulation errors.
Mood: “happy”
Affect: constricted
Impulse control: Poor. He was touching items on the provider’s desk despite multiple reprimands from his mother.
Thought content: Suicidal and/or homicidal ideations: Cannot be elicited when questioned
Perceptions: No evidence of psychosis, not responding to internal stimuli, reports auditory hallucinations.
Memory: Remote memory appears fair. He can repeat three objects immediately but not after 5 minutes.
Concentration: When focused, he is able to sing the ABCs and count to 99. Otherwise, he has a very short attention span and is distracted.
Attention and observed intellectual functioning: Intelligence appears to be average.
Fund of knowledge: Good general fund of knowledge and vocabulary
Musculoskeletal: normal gait and station
Diagnosis: (F90.2) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Presentation
General Directions

Review the provided case study to complete this week’s discussion.

Include the following sections:

Application of Course Knowledge: Answer all questions/criteria with explanations and detail.
Select one drug to treat the diagnosis(es) or symptoms.

List medication class and mechanism of action for the chosen medication.
Write the prescription in prescription format.
Provide an evidence-based rationale for the selected medication using at least one scholarly reference. Textbooks may be used for additional references but are not the primary reference.
List any side effects or adverse effects associated with the medication.
Include any required diagnostic testing. State the time frame for this testing (testing is before medication initiation or q 3 months, etc.). Includes normal results range for any listed laboratory tests.
Provide a minimum of three appropriate medication-related teaching points for the client and/or family.
Integration of Evidence: Integrate relevant scholarly sources as defined by program expectations:
Cite a scholarly source in the initial post.
Cite a scholarly source in one faculty response post.
Cite a scholarly source in one peer post.
Accurately analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles from evidence with no more than one short quote (15 words or less) for the week.
Include a minimum of two different scholarly sources per week. Cite all references and provide references for all citations.
Engagement in Meaningful Dialogue: Engage peers and faculty by asking questions, and offering new insights, applications, perspectives, information, or implications for practice.
Peer Response: Respond to at least one peer on a topic other than the initially assigned topic.
Faculty Response: Respond to at least one faculty post.
Communicate using respectful, collegial language and terminology appropriate to advanced nursing practice.
Professionalism in Communication: Communicate with minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation.
Reference Citation: Use current APA format to format citations and references and is free of errors.

Application of Course Knowledge

In analyzing the presented case study involving a 7-year-old male with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), several key points emerge. The client’s mother highlights the child’s impulsive behavior, difficulty sitting still, and rough play with peers. This disruptive behavior extends to the school environment, affecting academic performance and social interactions.

Diagnosis and Medication Selection

The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Presentation (F90.2), aligns with the client’s history of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentiveness. As an intervention strategy, the use of medication may be considered. In this case, Lisdexamfetamine, an FDA-approved medication for ADHD, is a suitable choice.

Mechanism of Action and Prescription

Lisdexamfetamine falls under the category of central nervous system stimulants. It functions by increasing the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, enhancing attention and reducing hyperactivity and impulsivity.

Lisdexamfetamine 20 mg
Dispense: #30 tablets
Sig: Take 1 tablet orally in the morning
Refills: 3

Rationale and Scholarly Reference

Lisdexamfetamine’s effectiveness in treating ADHD is supported by various scholarly sources. A study by Spencer et al. (2016) conducted a randomized clinical trial involving children with ADHD and demonstrated significant improvement in ADHD symptom reduction with Lisdexamfetamine compared to a placebo.

Side Effects and Adverse Effects

Adverse effects associated with Lisdexamfetamine use include insomnia, decreased appetite, weight loss, and potential increases in blood pressure and heart rate. However, these side effects are generally mild and transient. Regular monitoring of vital signs and growth parameters is advisable.

Diagnostic Testing and Teaching Points

Before initiating Lisdexamfetamine, a comprehensive physical examination and baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) are recommended. Regular follow-up visits, including blood pressure measurement, are advised at least every three months to monitor for any cardiovascular changes.

Medication-related teaching points for the client and family should include:

Administration: Ingest the medication in the morning to prevent interference with sleep.
Nutrition: Despite potential appetite reduction, ensure a balanced diet to support growth and development.
Side Effects: Discuss common side effects like insomnia and decreased appetite, emphasizing their temporary nature.
Integration of Evidence

In addition to the case study, Spencer et al. (2016) provide valuable evidence showcasing the positive impact of Lisdexamfetamine on ADHD symptoms. Furthermore, expert recommendations from guidelines such as the American Academy of Pediatrics can inform clinical decision-making.

Engagement in Meaningful Dialogue

Engage in discussion with peers and faculty by asking:

How can the family be supported in managing potential appetite reduction?
Are there any non-pharmacological interventions that could complement medication therapy?
Peer and Faculty Responses

Respond to a peer’s perspective on the impact of ADHD treatment on the child’s social interactions. Engage with faculty feedback on the rationale for choosing Lisdexamfetamine and inquire about alternative medication options.

Professionalism in Communication

Ensure clear and respectful communication with peers and faculty, adhering to advanced nursing practice terminology.

Reference Citation

Adhere to current APA formatting for citations and references, ensuring accuracy and completeness.


Spencer, T. J., Adler, L. A., Weisler, R. H., Youcha, S. H., & Jing, Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), 896-905.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 144(4), e20192528.
Mayo Clinic. (2021). Lisdexamfetamine (Oral Route): Side effects. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/
National Institute of Mental Health. (2022). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml


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