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Posted: August 30th, 2023

Infectious Respiratory Disorders

Topic: Infectious Respiratory Disorders
Case Study:
A 75-year-old patient of Hispanic descent arrives in an immigrant healthcare clinic with fever, chills, a sore throat, and a nonproductive cough. She speaks some English. The patient appears very ill, with dry mucous membranes, dark circles under the eyes, and pale skin. The patient appears anxious and is reluctant to make eye contact or speak. The health history reveals that the patient lives with extended family in a home setting, including infants and elderly. All of the family members are undocumented residents of the United States. Further workup reveals the patient has influenza.
Please post your responses to the following questions in Unit 7 Discussion Board.
Case Questions
1. What method should be used to ensure full communication with the patient?
2. Because the patient is an undocumented resident of the United States, what factors should you consider in the care and treatment of the patient?
3. Because influenza vaccination has been recommended, how will you suggest the family access influenza vaccinations?
4. What test was likely used to confirm the diagnosis of influenza?
5. What differential diagnoses need to be ruled out for the patient?
6. What self-care management should be explained to the patient?
7. The patient should report the development of what symptoms to the practitioner?

Topic: Infectious Respiratory Disorders

Case Study:
A 75-year-old patient of Hispanic descent arrives in an immigrant healthcare clinic with fever, chills, a sore throat, and a nonproductive cough. She speaks some English. The patient appears very ill, with dry mucous membranes, dark circles under the eyes, and pale skin. The patient appears anxious and is reluctant to make eye contact or speak. The health history reveals that the patient lives with extended family in a home setting, including infants and elderly. All of the family members are undocumented residents of the United States. Further workup reveals the patient has influenza.
Please post your responses to the following questions in Unit 7 Discussion Board.
Case Questions
1. What method should be used to ensure full communication with the patient?
One possible method to ensure full communication with the patient is to use an interpreter who speaks the same language and dialect as the patient, and who is familiar with the cultural norms and values of the patient’s community. An interpreter can help bridge the language barrier and facilitate a respectful and trusting relationship between the patient and the healthcare provider. The interpreter should be trained in medical terminology and confidentiality, and should avoid adding or omitting information or giving advice to the patient.
2. Because the patient is an undocumented resident of the United States, what factors should you consider in the care and treatment of the patient?
Some factors that should be considered in the care and treatment of the patient who is an undocumented resident of the United States are:

– The patient may have limited access to healthcare services and resources, such as insurance, medication, testing, and follow-up care.
– The patient may face barriers to seeking healthcare, such as fear of deportation, discrimination, stigma, or legal consequences.
– The patient may have social determinants of health that affect their health outcomes, such as poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, or exposure to violence.
– The patient may have cultural beliefs or practices that influence their health behaviors, such as preferences for traditional or alternative medicine, religious or spiritual beliefs, or family roles and expectations.
– The patient may have low health literacy or lack of knowledge about their condition, prevention measures, or treatment options.

The healthcare provider should be aware of these factors and address them in a culturally sensitive and compassionate manner. The healthcare provider should also respect the patient’s autonomy and informed consent, and provide clear and accurate information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment plan.
3. Because influenza vaccination has been recommended, how will you suggest the family access influenza vaccinations?
One possible way to suggest the family access influenza vaccinations is to provide them with information about local clinics or organizations that offer free or low-cost vaccinations for uninsured or underinsured individuals. The healthcare provider should also explain the benefits and risks of vaccination, and address any concerns or misconceptions that the family may have about it. The healthcare provider should also emphasize the importance of vaccination for preventing influenza transmission and complications, especially for vulnerable groups such as infants and elderly.
4. What test was likely used to confirm the diagnosis of influenza?
One possible test that was likely used to confirm the diagnosis of influenza is a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), which detects antigens from influenza viruses in respiratory specimens. RIDTs can provide results within 15 minutes, but they have low sensitivity and specificity, meaning they can produce false negative or false positive results. Therefore, RIDTs should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical signs and symptoms, epidemiological data, and laboratory confirmation if available.
5. What differential diagnoses need to be ruled out for the patient?
Some differential diagnoses that need to be ruled out for the patient are:

– COVID-19: caused by a novel coronavirus that can cause similar respiratory symptoms as influenza, but also loss of taste or smell, headache, fatigue, or diarrhea. COVID-19 can be diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test or an antigen test that detect viral genetic material or proteins in respiratory specimens.
– Pneumonia: caused by various bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs and cause inflammation and fluid accumulation. Pneumonia can cause fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, or sputum production. Pneumonia can be diagnosed by a chest x-ray or a sputum culture that identify the causative agent.
– Bronchitis: caused by inflammation of the bronchial tubes that carry air to and from the lungs. Bronchitis can cause coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or mucus production. Bronchitis can be diagnosed by a physical examination or a spirometry test that measure lung function.
6. What self-care management should be explained to the patient?
Some self-care management strategies that should be explained to the patient are:

– Resting at home until fully recovered and avoiding contact with others to prevent spreading the infection.
– Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated and prevent dehydration.
– Taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever, pain, or inflammation. Avoiding aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that can increase the risk of bleeding or Reye’s syndrome in children.
– Using a humidifier or a steam inhalation to loosen mucus and ease breathing.
– Gargling with salt water or using lozenges to soothe a sore throat.
– Seeking medical attention if symptoms worsen or do not improve within a week, or if signs of complications such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, confusion, or persistent fever occur.
7. The patient should report the development of what symptoms to the practitioner?
The patient should report the development of any symptoms that indicate a worsening of their condition or a complication of influenza, such as:

– Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
– Chest pain or pressure
– Confusion or altered mental status
– Persistent or high fever
– Severe or persistent vomiting
– Signs of dehydration such as dry mouth, decreased urine output, or dizziness

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