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Posted: October 29th, 2022
Social and Political Sciences
1. Introduction (10 points) 2-3pages
• The introduction should introduce your topic and/or present the issue.
• The introduction should give the reader a reason why they should care about the topic you have chosen. Why is this subject important? Why, how or in what ways is the research sociological relevant?
• Is this an examination of a social policy, a social problem or are you conducting an individual research project? Make sure this is clear.
• Who or what is this research focusing on? What groups of people are affected in terms of race, class, ethnicity, gender, etc. Or which institutions are relevant?
• The final part of a good introduction should provide a roadmap to the rest of the paper.
Here you want to lay out what you plan on saying in the paper. This is almost like a table of contents but you write out and explain what each of the following sections will be about. What are the sections the reader will expect to read in the rest of the paper?
2. Body of the Draft (15 points) 5-6 pages
• The body of the paper should be broken into sections (like having chapters for a paper) that are organized and logical. Make sure you follow the outline for this but also feel free to make changes depending on the information you are finding.
• Are you citing all points and arguments that you make in the paper with evidence?
• Back up all points with evidence and cite the evidence.
• Make sure that each section stays on topic and is focused on a subsection of your topic.
• Your final paper will need to include a conclusion section so you may feel free to try and include this in your rough drafts.
• Avoid repetition. Make sure you focus on specifics points, examples, topics, arguments, etc., and do not repeat points over and over again.
3. Bibliography/Works Cited Page (5 points)
• You will need to have a bibliography with (at least) 8 academic references.
• ASA or APA formatting, not both!
• You may have more than 8 references, the more the better! You may include non-academic references as well, as long as you have at least 8 academic references.
• All 8 must be academic references: journal articles, academic books, government reports or dissertations.
• Any reference included in your bibliography/works cited page must also be cited in the body of your paper. Any reference cited in your paper must also be included in your bibliography/works cited page.
Immigration has been one of the major contributions of cultural change and population growth in the United States throughout history. The country has been transformed and built by the immigration of people from all over the world. The United States is recognized as a nation of immigrants with a majority of people tracing their family histories to continents like Europe, Africa or Asia. Almost one-fifth of the world’s immigrant does reside in the United States. According to the United Nations Population Division 2013 report, 23 million more immigrants had resided since 1990 which is three times the number of immigrants compared to other countries. As of 2015, the US had accumulated 47 million immigrants who represent 19.1% of the 244 million immigrants around the globe (Abramitzky&Boustan, 2017). The immigrant has tremendously contributed to the country’s economy and continuously ever-changing culture. When immigrants settle in the United States, they are offered opportunities that better their lives and are integrated into society as well. Immigrants have embraced their American Identity and through service, contribution through building cities, enriching of the culture through art and the school systems. However, the political, social and economic contribution of immigration has brought about the controversy when it comes to topics such as maintaining ethnicity, jobs for immigrants and non-immigrants, the impact of immigrants on social issues, settlement patterns, and voting behavior. The paper presented will focus on the history of immigration since the 18th century, the effects of immigration in the United States and the current views on immigration.
Immigration in the United States is an essential sociological topic because it explains the analysis of immigration and the assimilation of immigrants in the United States. Immigration spreads to issues such as marginalization, social cohesion .multiculturalism and transnationalism. Immigration has raised controversial social concerns in the United States including employment, housing, education, family housing and much more (Kerr,2013). Also, economic impact and the government policies towards the immigrants is addressed when researching immigration as a sociological issue. The new population of the US immigrants includes political refugees from South East Asia who are later joined by their multi-generational families. The oldest group of immigrants is the Hispanic who is mostly farmers and is also joined by their complete families. Black immigrants often move to the United States for greater economic prosperity (Kerr, 2013). Problems experienced by immigrants include financial constraints and difficulties in finding jobs (Abramitzky&Boustan,2017). Most of the immigrants leave their families behind to pursue better living conditions in the United States. Most of the policy issues that address immigrant needs tend to not be in favor of the local controlled administration. The fundamental problems that immigrant often face is literacy to enable them to prosper in the continually changing population(Rischin,2006). However, new laws and policies are intended to be put across to tackle such issues and stabilize the conditions.
One of the relevant approaches to solve the problems that immigrants face is to provide direct service through intervention and education (Hart&Arcs, 2011). Poverty among immigrants is still increasing despite the efforts to provide opportunities and education meaning that more needs to be done in ensuring the immigrants and migrants opportunities are equal and in alignment for the economic wellbeing of both parties. However, immigration laws are intended to stabilize and be in favor of the administration and local control. Despite the efforts, the growing population continues to reflect negative social impacts. A quota should be formed that is flexible and feasible for the labor needs of the immigrant (Hart&Arcs,2011)s. Also, occupational criteria of the immigrant should be redressed. Various migrant groups have unique needs which should be looked into to decide upon their social needs.
Immigrant entrepreneur effects within the United States
Immigration and entrepreneurship is a controversial subject that questions the value of migrants to the U.S economy. Studies examine if immigrants taking American jobs helps improve the economy or deters it. Claims have been raised that immigrants drain welfare funds. Arguments state that on the fixed number of jobs in the U.S the immigrants compete for a slice hence they do not help the economy grow. However, when it comes to starts ups, immigrants hold a more significant percentage of startup business compared to the Native Americans. Studies (Espenshade&Hempstade,2006) argue that this is because the rate of entrepreneurship has declined due to a few starts up generation. The US government has made initiatives to attract immigrant entrepreneurs hence launching attractive initiatives that would lead to business opportunities and the creation of more jobs. Statistics show that most immigrants lean on self-employment which reflects the government’s effort towards creating jobs for economic growth. A Census Bureau done to explore different kinds of businesses that immigrants formed reveals their growth patterns over time in their business ventures. The census is done used variables such as the Longitudinal Business Database to give a comprehensive and vast view of the immigrant entrepreneurship frequency since 1995.
Research done found that the business formations slowing in the United States put the immigrant at an essential position in their contribution towards entrepreneurship. Research shows that immigrants make 20.6% of the U.S entrepreneurs regardless of the 13.2% of their population overall (Bergeron, 2013). They constitute 15% of the general workforce but represent a quarter of the entrepreneurs which puts them at the position of the top three earners in new businesses. Since the mid-1990’s, the migrants’ entrepreneurship has been dramatically moving in an upward trajectory. However, the migrants are not as represented in the employees’ sector. Other studies found that of the 35%-40% of the new firms established includes at least one immigrant as the firm’s founder (Bergeron, 2013). By 2011, 28% (Bergeron, 2013) of the share of all the new business were recorded to have been started by immigrants. Immigrants have started businesses in seven of the eight sectors that are expected to expand in the next decade including healthcare, business services, retail trading, construction, educational services, and transport and hospitality businesses. The frequency of their business startups is significantly increased due to the diversity in their ventures. The firms started by the immigrants represent more than 25 percent of all the businesses in the named sectors. When comparing specific national and ethnic groups within the immigrants, immigrants have been found to have higher entrepreneurship rates compared to the native-born individuals. For example, Middle Eastern immigrants own 15,000 Businesses in Detroit hence spurring back the economy of the city.
History/Mass assimilation of immigrants into the United States (1850-1913)
During the Age of Mass migration, in 1850-1913 immigrants were perceived to have failed to assimilate into the US culture and norms by continuing to uphold their culture and speaking of foreign language. In 1890, immigrants were restricted to enter the United States by the Congress in arguments that immigrants are not promising and qualified for the civilization of the United States due to their resistance to assimilate. Senator Henry Cabot stated that bringing immigrants into the U.S will have a severe effect on the labor market. Strict quotas that restrict immigrant from migrating into the U.S was passed on in 1920 by the Congress. Border restrictions offered opponents of immigration to rely on cultural arguments that prevented immigrants from migrating into the B.S.For. example, and assimilation included name change in which parents had to pick names that represented their cultural assimilation. Name changing cause cultural convergence over time that resulted the immigrants to have assimilated names and foreign last names.
By 1930, almost all immigrants, an estimation of more than two-thirds applied for the United States citizenship. Intermarriages occurred, and most of them reported to have the ability to speak English. Within a single generation, an average immigrant had achieved a reasonable level of cultural assimilation in a single generation. However, some groups assimilated at a slow pace. Recent studies show that aesthetic concerns are also impactful in current times and influences attitudes toward immigration policies. In 2016, immigration was an important issue during the presidential campaign.
How immigration has economically helped the United States
Immigrants have brought auspicious economic benefits the US economy as well as adverse effects. The restrictive immigration law that was passed in 1929 and abolished in 1965 has allowed the flow of immigrants which has impacted the economy. Immigrants have increased labor in the United States which has reduced wages due to crowding. However, immigrants have brought an investment which has expanded the productivity of the economy. Immigrants have founded and established firms which have grown and fast rate between 1960 to 2009. However, the educational qualifications of immigrants dictate the working nature of the particular migrants. Migrants with tertiary education and secondary education do different jobs and earn different wages. Highly educated natives apply for more intense jobs with complex interaction skills while the less educated natives get their wages from self-created small businesses. Also, immigrants with little schooling focus n manual jobs such as construction, farm laboring, drivers’ cooks and children caregiving jobs.
Immigration has benefited the economy, but some areas face challenges. A report shows that in the next 75 years the contribution of immigrants to the economy will be positive at the federal level and negative on the local and state levels as a result of straining on the resources and programs provided by the government. Immigrants such as refugees are job creators and entrepreneurs as well as consumers and taxpayers. Their economic contributions benefit the economy in trillions of dollars in GD or the gross domestic products. The immigrant’s economic impacts are likely to increase in the coming decades as the immigrants become the largest generation in the Americas. However, the economic effects of the immigrants could be broadened by legislative evolutions that can modernize the U.S immigration system that allows the unauthorized immigrants into the U.S with guaranteed citizenship.
Today’s views on immigrants
Today, immigrants face issues such as discrimination due to their race and ethnicity. Immigrants like back people have raised their grievances on the lack of racial equality. A significant share of the public has suggested that more needs to be done in tackling racism. However, views of immigration have shifted in recent years because immigrants are viewed as a source of strength and not as a burden. Democrats’ views continue to revolutionize the views of racial equality by taking pro-liberal steps and pro-immigrant positions. Republicans continue to hold the same opinions about the immigrants being less significant compared to the natives. The immigration policies are another challenge that migrants experience in the U.S. Despite the positive economic impacts of immigrants to the country; the new administration policies threaten to restrict the immigration policies on refugee settlement and legal immigration. Such legislation will negatively impact the migrants because it will affect financial cost on taxpayers and threaten the migrants’ lives, communities and families. Laws such as deportation and detention will billions of dollars and break families and established businesses.
In 2017, President Trump threatened to deport immigrants who was a threat based on the nativist view that what’s good for the immigrants is bad for America. His views peered into the lottery visa system claiming that the immigrants who acquired visas through lottery means were terrorists and criminals. President Trump stated that the immigrants chosen in the lottery must be selected with skill and merit to ensure safety for America. While addressing the State Union, he said that immigrants migrating to the U.S via visa lotteries must have high school education and two years’ experience of work and must undergo medical, criminal and national security checks. Also, receiving a visa is not a guarantee of permanent residence but just a chance to get through the rest of the immigration process. Besides, in the family reunification program, President Trump addressed the intention to mitigate the chain migration and allow unlimited numbers of distant relatives that migrate to the Americas. Relatives other than children, parents, and spouses are subject to the country’s quotas on the annual caps which have created a backlog of only four million applicants who go through troubling processes to acquire visas (Chacon,2016). Such imposed restriction threated to cut the number of legal immigrants that migrate every year though into a half. Trump’s notions are based on the assumptions that immigration is an open opportunity for immigrants and terrorists to enter the United States, However, studies done by Cato (Chacon,2016) institute differs stating that the legal and illegal immigrants both are far less prone to crime compared to native Americans.
Politicians have discussed for decades on how to deal with the illegal immigrants who now account of 11 million people of Americans. However, immigration has been regarded to be good for Americas because it has helped the economy grow. Immigrants have been recorded to establish business and firms that create job opportunities and revenues compared to the native-born Americans. Studies show that 87% of the immigrants hold companies that are worth 1billion dollars (Masri&Senussi, 2017). Also, such companies include 51% of immigrant funders (Masri&Senussi, 2017). Immigrants possess great potential for America which needs to live its full potential. The immigrants have shown more skill and ambition compared to the native immigrants. However, such potential will not unfold in the shadow of President Trump’s threat to deport the immigrants who are merely dreamers. Quotas should also be established to ensure all immigrants receive a quality education as well as job opportunities with the Natives. The way forward for the immigrants needs to be taken into consideration with a thorough debate. Members of Congress should take sensible measures that would clear the hurdle and favor what’s good for the immigrants because that would also ensure wellness for the natives as well. Senator John McCain and the Democrats of Delaware have offered a bill that would end the threat towards immigrants while strengthening border security as well. Immigration should be viewed as more of an opportunity than a wasteful venture.
Masri, A., & Senussi, M. H. (2017). Trump’s executive order on immigration—detrimental effects on medical training and health care. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(19), e39.
Chacón, J. M. (2016). Immigration and the Bully Pulpit. Harv. L. Rev. F., 130, 243.
Bergeron, C. (2013). Going to the back of the line: A primer on lines, visa categories, and wait times. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. http://www. migrationpolicy. org/research/going-back-line-primer-lines-visa-categories-andwait-times.
Kerr, W. R. (2013). US high-skilled immigration, innovation, and entrepreneurship: Empirical approaches and evidence(No. w19377). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hart, D. M., & Acs, Z. J. (2011). High-tech immigrant entrepreneurship in the United States. Economic Development Quarterly, 25(2), 116-129.
Espenshade, T. J., & Hempstead, K. (2006). Contemporary American attitudes toward US immigration. International Migration Review, 30(2), 535-570.
Abramitzky, R., & Boustan, L. (2017). Immigration in American economic history. Journal of economic literature, 55(4), 1311-45.
Rischin, M. (Ed.). (2006). Immigration and the American tradition. Bobbs-Merrill.
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