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Posted: August 30th, 2023

Epidemiology in Public and Global Health

Assignment: Epidemiology in Public and Global Health.
For this Assignment, review the following:
• Walden paper template (found in the Writing Resources tab)
o Note that no abstract or running heading are required
Write a 3 page paper that includes the following:
• A summary of the article, including the title and author. To provide an accurate summary of the article, I’ll need you to provide me with the title and author of the article you’re referring to. Please provide that information so that I can assist you in revising and updating the summary, as well as creating the in-text citation and reference list entry.
o Identify the title of the article with in-text citation and corresponding reference in reference list
• The relationship among causal agents, susceptible persons, and environmental factors (epidemiological triangle)
• The role of the nurse in addressing the outbreak
• Two to three possible health promotion/health protection strategies that could have been implemented by nurses to mitigate the outbreak
• Conclusion
At least three scholarly sources of evidence part from your chosen article

Required Readings
 Holtz, C. (2022). Global health care: Issues and policies (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.
Chapter 11, “Infectious Diseases from a Global Perspective” (pp. 227-253)
Chapter 15, “Global Perspectives on Violence, Injury, and Occupational Health” (pp. 349-385)
Chapter 8, “Global Perspectives on Mental Health” (pp. 171-183)
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). Elsevier.
Chapter 13, “Infectious Disease Prevention and Control” (pp. 286–318)
 Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 9th Ed. by Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Health Science Books. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Science Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). Elsevier.
Chapter 12, “Epidemiology” (pp. 256–285)
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). Elsevier.
Chapter 24, “Public Health Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation” (pp. 529–544)
 Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 9th Ed. by Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier Health Science Books. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Science Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 HealthyPeople.gov. (2016). Global health. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/global-health

Sample answer guide:
Epidemiology in Public and Global Health: A Focus on Salmonella Outbreaks


This article delves into the realm of epidemiology in public and global health, centered around a significant health concern – Salmonella outbreaks. The chosen article, published by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 2020, sheds light on the outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with pet hedgehogs. This article aims to provide valuable insights into the outbreak, raise awareness, and emphasize precautionary measures necessary to curb its spread.

Salmonella Outbreak Linked to Pet Hedgehogs

The article titled ‘Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Hedgehogs’ from the CDC underscores the urgency of understanding and addressing this infectious health condition. The CDC identifies pet hedgehogs as carriers of the disease, and alarmingly, reports indicate that about 70 percent of the affected patients had direct contact with these animals. The outbreak has manifested in 32 individuals across 17 states as of 2020. The article also highlights the symptoms of Salmonella infection, which encompass stomach cramps, fever, and diarrhea. This infectious disease is revealed to have a significant impact, causing 450 deaths, approximately 36,000 hospitalizations, and around 1.2 million reported cases in the same year.

The Epidemiological Triangle

The foundation of epidemiology rests upon the epidemiological triangle, encapsulating the interplay between causal agents, susceptible individuals, and environmental factors. The causative agent for this outbreak is the Salmonella bacteria. This bacterium resides within the intestines of various birds and animals, serving as the source of human infection. Consumption of undercooked meat, poorly washed vegetables, and contaminated water amplifies the risk of infection. The incubation period for Salmonella bacteria varies from a few hours to two days. Among the susceptible groups, pet owners, particularly those of hedgehogs, are at a heightened risk of infection. Additionally, individuals who travel internationally or belong to immunocompromised groups such as HIV patients, the elderly, sickle cell disease patients, and those on corticosteroids are also more vulnerable to infection. It’s important to note that Salmonella infection can impact various bodily systems, including blood vessels, the heart, and bone marrow.

Role of Nurses in Addressing the Outbreak

Nurses play a pivotal role during outbreaks by disseminating crucial information to the public and ensuring the adoption of preventive measures. Awareness campaigns are essential to limit the outbreak’s expansion within communities, schools, and among various groups. Nurse-led educational initiatives through seminars, workshops, and journals can effectively promote behavioral changes and inform families about avoiding potential sources of infection, such as hedgehogs.

Moreover, nurses are entrusted with the task of gathering and monitoring outbreak-related data. This data-driven approach empowers healthcare systems to make informed decisions and allocate resources effectively. In times of crisis, nurses also act as caregivers and companions to those afflicted, offering both medical care and emotional support. Their ability to report outbreaks promptly ensures timely responses from stakeholders, bolstering community resilience.

The Crucial Role of Health Promotion and Protection

Nurses play a central role in initiating health promotion and protection strategies to combat the outbreak’s impact. Educating the public and patients’ families about causative agents, symptoms, and preventive measures is paramount. For instance, disseminating knowledge about the link between hedgehogs and the outbreak can curtail disease transmission. Encouraging patients to avoid hedgehog interaction and promptly report symptoms further reinforces prevention efforts.

Early detection through mass testing emerges as a critical strategy to curb the outbreak’s spread. Swift identification of infected individuals facilitates timely treatment and recovery, reducing the strain on healthcare facilities and decreasing mortality rates. Adherence to prescribed medications and lifestyle adjustments, such as avoiding contact with hedgehogs, significantly contributes to the containment of the outbreak’s adverse effects.


The staggering toll of 450 deaths, nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, and approximately 1.2 million cases attributed to Salmonella underscores the urgency of addressing infectious diseases. Salmonella, residing within the intestines of animals, poses a significant threat to human health. Nurses serve as linchpins in outbreak response, disseminating information, collecting data, and providing care. Through health promotion and protection strategies, nurses can mitigate the outbreak’s impact, fostering behavior change and safeguarding community well-being. This crisis emphasizes the imperative for proactive governmental action in combating infectious diseases.

Center for Disease Control. (2020). Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Hedgehogs. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium-09-20/index.html
Robinson, E., Travanut, M., Fabre, L., Larréché, S., Ramelli, L., Pascal, L., … & Jourdan-Da Silva, N. (2020). Outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with internationally distributed raw goats’ milk cheese, France, 2018. Epidemiology & Infection, 148.
Vaughn, E. L., Vo, Q. T., Vostok, J., Stiles, T., Lang, A., Brown, C. M., … & Madoff, L. (2020). Linking epidemiology and whole-genome sequencing to investigate Salmonella outbreak, Massachusetts, USA, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(7), 1538.
Waltenburg, M. A., Nichols, M., Waechter, H., Higa, J., Cronquist, L., Lowe, A. M., … & Basler, C. (2021). Notes from the Field: Recurrence of a Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Contact with Hedgehogs—United States and Canada, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(32), 1100.

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