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Posted: March 13th, 2023

Enhancing safety and security measures in the shipping industry to prevent acts of terrorism and piracy at port facilities

Enhancing safety and security measures in the shipping industry to prevent acts of terrorism and piracy at port facilities
The shipping industry is an essential part of global trade, connecting countries and regions through the transportation of goods and commodities. However, the industry faces numerous challenges, one of which is the threat of terrorism and piracy at port facilities. These threats not only endanger the lives of crew members and passengers but also result in significant economic losses. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance safety and security measures in the shipping industry to prevent acts of terrorism and piracy. This article discusses the ways in which safety and security measures can be enhanced to ensure the safety of port facilities in the shipping industry.
Overview of Terrorism and Piracy in the Shipping Industry
The shipping industry is vulnerable to acts of terrorism and piracy due to its global reach and the nature of its operations. Piracy refers to the hijacking of ships on the high seas, while terrorism targets ports and other critical infrastructure (Droppers & Sohmen, 2020). In recent years, piracy and terrorism have become more sophisticated, and the shipping industry has had to adapt to new challenges to ensure the safety and security of its operations. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the industry’s operations and has had significant impacts on maritime security .
In addition, maritime terrorism and piracy pose significant threats to the shipping industry, impacting global trade and the world economy. According to Trelawny (2019), effective information sharing is crucial in enhancing maritime security and preventing acts of terrorism and piracy. Information sharing among industry stakeholders, including governments, shipping companies, and port authorities, can facilitate early detection of threats and enable timely responses.
The shipping industry has taken various measures to prevent and respond to terrorism and piracy threats. One such measure is the use of technology to monitor and detect potential threats (Gaines & Jacobsen, 2019). For instance, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a technology used by ships to transmit and receive real-time information about vessel movements, which can help identify suspicious activities (Bichou & Gray, 2019). Additionally, the industry has adopted the use of private security firms and armed guards on ships to prevent piracy attacks.
International cooperation and collaboration are also essential in addressing maritime terrorism and piracy. Wilson and Tallis (2021) argue that global governance is critical in ensuring effective security measures in the maritime industry. The United Nations, through its International Maritime Organization (IMO), has established various conventions and protocols aimed at enhancing maritime security, such as the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code.
Despite these efforts, piracy and terrorism continue to pose significant threats to the shipping industry. One challenge is the vastness of the oceans, which makes it difficult to monitor and detect suspicious activities. Moreover, the ever-evolving tactics of terrorists and pirates make it challenging to keep up with emerging threats.
Enhancing Safety and Security Measures
The following are some ways in which safety and security measures can be enhanced in the shipping industry:

Implementing Security Standards: The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed several security standards, including the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, to enhance the safety and security of ships and port facilities. Compliance with these standards can help prevent acts of terrorism and piracy.
Strengthening Information Sharing: Effective information sharing is essential for preventing acts of terrorism and piracy. Governments, port authorities, and shipping companies should share information about potential threats and incidents to enhance situational awareness. Initiatives such as the Maritime Awareness System (MAS) have been developed to facilitate information sharing (Trelawny, 2019).
Enhancing Surveillance: Advanced surveillance technologies, such as radar, sonar, and cameras, can help detect and deter acts of terrorism and piracy (Bichou & Gray, 2019). These technologies can also be used to track vessels and monitor their movements. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones can be used to monitor ports and provide real-time information (Trelawny, 2019).
Training and Capacity Building: Training and capacity building are essential for enhancing safety and security measures in the shipping industry (Gaines & Jacobsen, 2019). Port authorities and shipping companies should provide regular training to their staff on security procedures, emergency response, and crisis management. Additionally, countries should invest in building the capacity of their law enforcement agencies to deal with maritime threats effectively (Wilson & Tallis, 2021).
Cybersecurity: With the increasing use of technology in the shipping industry, cybersecurity has become an essential aspect of safety and security measures (Droppers & Sohmen, 2020). The IMO has developed guidelines on maritime cyber risk management to help prevent cyber-attacks on ships and port facilities (Bichou & Gray, 2019).
Enhancing Global Governance: Maritime security is a global issue that requires international cooperation and coordination. The development of a global governance framework can help ensure that safety and security measures are consistent across different regions and countries. Wilson and Tallis (2021) argue that a global governance framework for maritime security can help address the challenges posed by transnational threats such as terrorism and piracy.
Enhancing safety and security measures in the shipping industry is crucial to prevent acts of terrorism and piracy at port facilities. The industry faces numerous challenges, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which has had significant impacts on maritime security. To mitigate these challenges, safety and security measures such as implementing security standards, strengthening information sharing, enhancing surveillance, training and capacity building, cybersecurity, and enhancing global governance must be adopted.

Bibliography
Bichou, K., & Gray, R. (2019). Piracy and maritime terrorism: A comprehensive review on the relationships between maritime terrorism and piracy. Maritime Policy & Management, 46(4), 419-433.
Carien Droppers & Maximilian Sohmen. (2020). “Maritime security and the impact of COVID-19.” Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, 51(1), 1-11.
Chris Trelawny. (2019). “Enhancing maritime security through effective information sharing.” Journal of Transportation Security, 12(3), 157-168.
Philip Wilson and Joshua Tallis. (2021). “Maritime security and global governance.” In A. B. McCormick & J. R. Duns (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Global Governance (pp. 327-340). Routledge.
Droppers, C., & Sohmen, M. (2020). Maritime security and the impact of COVID-19. Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, 51(1), 1-11.
Gaines, L., & Jacobsen, M. (2019). Private security in the shipping industry: Contemporary challenges to maritime piracy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 177, 63-72.
Trelawny, C. (2019). Enhancing maritime security through effective information sharing. Journal of Transportation Security, 12(3), 157-168.
Wilson, P., & Tallis, J. (2021). Maritime security and global governance. In A. B. McCormick & J. R. Duns (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Global Governance (pp. 327-340). Routledge.

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