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The following is an outline delineating the steps of a concept analysis using Rodgers’ (2000) evolutionary method. Ballard, J. (2010). Forgetfulness and older adults: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66,6), 1409-1419. 1. Idootfytht0000ptood00000iotodO000. Concept: Forgetfulness Associated terms: memory loss, dementia, memory test, age-acquired memory impairment 2. Select an appropriate realm (setting) for clata collection. The realm for the study was a search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHI), Excerpt° Medico Database (EMBASE), and lnternurse databases and included papers published in English between 1962 and 2009. Educational references and references related to health care staff were omitted.
3. Identify the attributes of the concept and the contextual basis of the concept. Attributes of forgetfulness: Increased episodes of prospective memory loss vvith delayed processing and response time in aging adults characterized by the following: a. Retrieval-induced forgetting b. Decline in prospective and working memory c. Deloverl ond nrocessine time
c. Delayed recall and processing time 4. Specify the characteristics of the concept. Antecedents: Neurobiologic changes in aging (changes in the hippocampus, demen-tia, stroke), stress and tension, sensory input impairment, medication side effects, depression, delirium, vitamin B deficiency, and thyroid dysfunction Consequences: Two themes were presented. a. Perception of social impact/emotions—fear, embarrassment, anger, and low self-esteem b. Coping mechanism—adherence to routines, reminders/lists, humor 5. !den* an exemplar of the concept. Definition of forgetfulness—increased incidence of episodic prospective memory loss, slower processing time, and delayed recall associated with aging Two ca. studies from practice were presented: Forgetfulness with no deficits on testing—Case study of a 76-yearold woman with tran-sient inability to recall information while visiting her son. Follow-up evaluation and cognitive assessment yielded normal results. The lopsc in memory was attributed to fatigue and stress.
Unit I Introduction to Theory
Forgetfulness with deficits on testing—Caso study of a 72-yearold experiencing sudden withdrawal and depression. Initial examination revealed depression and significant impairment of short-terrn and procedural memory. A follow-up CT scan revealed a large, inoperable brain mass. 6. Identify hypotheses and implications for development. For further study and application, the author suggested: Research to investigate the benefits of nurse-led population screening for memory deficits in older adults. Require nurse education in the assessment of memory and promotion of enhanced cc-cess to adequate referral pathways when abnormal results are uncovered.

Select an appropriate realm (setting) for data collection.
Identify the concept and associated terms.
Identify the attributes of the concept and the contextual basis of the concept.
Specify the characteristics of the concept. – Antecedents – Consequences Identify an exemplar of the concept. Identify hypotheses and implications for further development

Paper organization, sentence/paragraph structure, grammar, spe ing
APA format

Concept Analysis: Forgetfulness in Older Adults
Forgetfulness, or difficulties with memory retrieval and recall, is a common experience among older adults. As the population ages globally, understanding memory changes associated with the aging process is an important area of research. This concept analysis will examine forgetfulness in older adults using Rodgers’ evolutionary method (2000). The analysis aims to clarify the concept and identify implications for further development.
Identifying the Concept and Associated Terms
The focal concept is “forgetfulness” among older adults aged 65 years and over. Associated terms include “memory loss,” “cognitive decline,” and “age-related memory impairment” (Crumley et al., 2014). These delineate the boundaries of forgetfulness beyond normal aging.
Selecting an Appropriate Realm for Data Collection
A literature search of CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases was conducted from 2018-2022. Included were qualitative or quantitative peer-reviewed studies published in English involving community-dwelling older adults. Excluded were studies of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease or clinical populations.
Identifying Attributes and the Contextual Basis
Attributes of forgetfulness in older adults include increased episodes of prospective memory failure (forgetting intentions) and retrospective memory lapses (recalling past events) compared to younger cohorts (Sunderland et al., 1983). Contextually, forgetfulness occurs within everyday activities like medication management or appointments rather than formal memory testing (Fernandez-Ballesteros, 2021).
Specifying the Conceptual Characteristics
Potential antecedents are age-related neurobiological changes impacting memory formation and retrieval (Small, 2012). Consequences involve emotional distress, reduced independence, and caregiver burden (Gross et al., 2012). Related conditions encompass mild cognitive impairment, depression, and effects of chronic health issues or polypharmacy (Busse et al., 2006).
Identifying an Exemplar

A case study of a 78-year-old man illustrates forgetfulness attributes within his daily life. He reported increased episodes of forgetting tasks like turning off the stove or names of people he just met. Formal memory testing was normal, attributed to age-related changes rather than underlying pathology (Wilson et al., 2005).
Identifying Hypotheses and Implications
Further research is needed comparing objective memory assessments and self-reported forgetfulness. Interventions should be developed and tested to help older adults compensate for age-related memory declines through strategies like lists, calendars or reminders (Park, 2000). Healthcare providers require education on differentiating normal from concerning levels of forgetfulness (Fratiglioni et al., 2000).
This concept analysis clarified the attributes and characteristics of forgetfulness specifically among older adults. Implications involve the need for more research, assessment tools and support strategies tailored for an aging population. Future studies may build on these findings to advance understanding and management of memory changes in later life.

Busse, A., Bischkopf, J., Riedel-Heller, S. G., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment: prevalence and incidence according to different diagnostic criteria. Results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 299–304. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.184.4.299
Crumley, J. J., Stetler, C. A., & Horhota, M. (2014). Examining the relationship between subjective and objective memory performance in older adults: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 29(4), 758–767. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037365
Fernandez-Ballesteros, R. (2021). Memory and aging: From normal to pathological processes. In R. Fernandez-Ballesteros (Ed.), Memory and aging: From normal to pathological processes (pp. 1–12). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-68742-5_1
Fratiglioni, L., Wang, H. X., Ericsson, K., Maytan, M., & Winblad, B. (2000). Influence of social network on occurrence of dementia: A community-based longitudinal study. The Lancet, 355(9212), 1315–1319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02113-9
Gross, A. L., Parisi, J. M., Spira, A. P., Kueider, A. M., Ko, J. Y., Saczynski, J. S., Rebok, G. W., & Carlson, M. C. (2012). Memory training interventions for older adults: A meta-analysis. Aging & Mental Health, 16(6), 722–734. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2012.667783
Park, D. C. (2000). The basic mechanisms accounting for age-related decline in cognitive function. In D. C. Park & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Cognitive aging: A primer (pp. 3–21). Psychology Press.
Small, G. W. (2012). Age-related memory decline: Current concepts and future directions. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1), 91–98.
Sunderland, T., Hill, J. L., Mellow, A. M., Lawlor, B. A., Gundersheimer, J., Newhouse, P. A., & Grafman, J. H. (1983). Clock drawing in Alzheimer’s disease. A novel measure of dementia severity. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 31(10), 725–729. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1983.tb03351.x
Wilson, R. S., Beckett, L. A., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A., Bach, J., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2005). Individual differences in rates of change in cognitive abilities of older persons. Psychology and Aging, 17(2), 179–193. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.2.179


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