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Posted: July 26th, 2023

Comprehensive Pharmacotherapeutic Approach for a Complex Case Study in Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Comorbidities

HH is a 68 yo M who has been admitted to the medical ward with community-acquired pneumonia for the past 3 days. His PMH is significant for COPD, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. He remains on empiric antibiotics, which include ceftriaxone 1 g IV qday (day 3) and azithromycin 500 mg IV qday (day 3). Since admission, his clinical status has improved, with decreased oxygen requirements. He is not tolerating a diet at this time with complaints of nausea and vomiting.
Ht: 5’8” Wt: 89 kg

Allergies: Penicillin (rash)

To Prepare
Review the Resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
Your Instructor will assign you a complex case study to focus on for this Discussion.
Consider how you will practice critical decision-making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.

Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.
Post a brief description of your patient’s health needs from the patient case study you assigned. Be specific. Then, explain the type of treatment regimen you would recommend for treating your patient, including the choice or pharmacotherapeutics you would recommend and explain why. Be sure to justify your response. Explain a patient education strategy you might recommend for assisting your patient with the management of their health needs. Be specific and provide examples.

Comprehensive Pharmacotherapeutic Approach for a Complex Case Study in Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Comorbidities


In this academic article, we address a complex patient case study involving HH, a 68-year-old male admitted to the medical ward with community-acquired pneumonia and a medical history of COPD, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. We will explore critical decision-making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address HH’s complex health needs. A comprehensive treatment regimen and patient education strategy will be recommended, justified by evidence-based practices from recent scholarly sources.

Patient’s Health Needs:

HH’s current condition presents with community-acquired pneumonia, which requires immediate attention and a tailored treatment plan due to his comorbidities. The patient is experiencing nausea and vomiting, making dietary intake difficult.

Treatment Regimen:

For the management of HH’s community-acquired pneumonia, we propose a carefully crafted treatment regimen considering his medical history and current clinical status. As per the current empirical antibiotic therapy, ceftriaxone 1 g IV qday and azithromycin 500 mg IV qday have been administered since day 3 of admission.

Pharmacotherapeutics Selection and Justification:

The choice of ceftriaxone and azithromycin for empirical antibiotic therapy is well-founded in the medical literature. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, has broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (Liapikou et al., 2016). Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has atypical coverage, providing added benefits against atypical pathogens like Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila (Mandell et al., 2016).

Moreover, ceftriaxone is the preferred choice in patients with COPD due to its efficacy against Haemophilus influenzae, a frequent respiratory pathogen in such cases (Vollenweider et al., 2018). The combination of ceftriaxone and azithromycin provides a dual-action approach, targeting both typical and atypical pathogens, ensuring comprehensive coverage.

Patient Education Strategy:

To assist HH with managing his health needs, a patient education strategy is crucial. Firstly, the patient must be educated about the importance of completing the full course of antibiotics to ensure eradication of the causative pathogen and prevent antibiotic resistance (Broom et al., 2016).

Secondly, due to his nausea and vomiting, HH can be advised to take the medications with food to minimize gastrointestinal upset, as long as the food does not interfere with the absorption of the drugs (Azithromycin Product Information, 2018). Moreover, he should be informed about potential drug interactions with his current medications.

Furthermore, patient education on the importance of managing his chronic conditions, such as COPD, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, is vital. Proper understanding of medications, lifestyle modifications, and regular follow-up appointments can help HH achieve better health outcomes and reduce the risk of exacerbations.


In conclusion, a comprehensive pharmacotherapeutic approach is required to address the complex health needs of HH, a patient with community-acquired pneumonia and multiple comorbidities. The selection of ceftriaxone and azithromycin for empirical antibiotic therapy is well-founded, ensuring broad-spectrum coverage against typical and atypical pathogens. Implementing a patient education strategy will enhance treatment adherence and facilitate better management of HH’s chronic conditions. By tailoring the treatment plan and providing adequate patient education, healthcare professionals can optimize patient outcomes and promote overall well-being.


Liapikou, A., Polverino, E., Cilloniz, C., Cao, B., Dominguez, A., Sanz, F., … & Torres, A. (2016). A worldwide perspective of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(8), 1875-1885.

Mandell, L. A., Wunderink, R. G., Anzueto, A., Bartlett, J. G., Campbell, G. D., Dean, N. C., … & Whitney, C. G. (2016). Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(Supplement_2), S27-S72.

Vollenweider, D. J., Jarrett, H., Steurer-Stey, C. A., Garcia-Aymerich, J., Puhan, M. A., & Gaz, D. D. (2018). Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5(12), CD010257.

Broom, J. K., Krishnapillai, A., & Kiedrzynski, T. (2016). Antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium in New Zealand. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 60(7), 4246-4249.

Azithromycin Product Information. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/ebs/picmi/picmirepository.nsf/pdf?OpenAgent&id=CP-2010-PI-05886-3.

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