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Posted: October 22nd, 2023
Cardiovascular/Pulmonary PowerPoint Presentation
Goal: Develop a PowerPoint presentation on a cardiovascular/pulmonary disorder/disease discussed in the McCance text.
The presentation must provide information about the incidence, prevalence, and pathophysiology of the disease/disorder to the cellular level. The presentation must educate advanced practice nurses on assessment and care/treatment, including genetics/genomics—specific for this disorder. Patient education for management, cultural, and spiritual considerations for care must also be addressed. The presentation must specifically address how the disease/disorder affects 1 of the following age groups: infant/child, adult, or elderly.
• Presentation is original work and logically organized. • Followed APA format including citation of references. • Presentation is original work and logically organized. • Followed APA format including citation of references. • Power point presentation with 10-15 slides were clear and easy to read. Speaker notes expanded upon and clarified content on the slides. • Incorporate a minimum of 4 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work. Journal articles and books should be referenced according to APA style (the library has a copy of the APA Manual).
• Select a cardiovascular or pulmonary disorder. • Provide information about the incidence, prevalence, and pathophysiology of the disease/disorder to the cellular level. • Educate advanced practice nurses on assessment and care/treatment, including genetics/genomics—specific for this disorder. • Provide patient education for management, cultural, and spiritual considerations for care must also be addressed. • Must specifically address how the disease/disorder affects 1 of the following age groups: infant/child, adult, or elderly.
COPD in the Elderly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases, most commonly from cigarette smoke (WHO, 2022). COPD remains a major public health challenge and is the third leading cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2022). This presentation will focus on COPD in the elderly population, those aged 65 years and older.
Incidence and Prevalence of COPD in the Elderly
COPD is the third leading cause of death in adults over 65 years old in the United States (CDC, 2022).
The prevalence of COPD increases with age, with over 25% of those over 65 having the disease (Mapel et al., 2015).
COPD hospitalization rates also rise sharply with age, with those over 85 experiencing hospitalization rates 8 times higher than those aged 45-64 (CDC, 2022).
Pathophysiology of COPD
A brief overview of the pathophysiology of COPD is provided, focusing on the inflammation and damage to airways and lung parenchyma that leads to airflow limitation over many years (GOLD, 2022). Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are discussed as the two main conditions that cause COPD.
Assessment of COPD in the Elderly
Medical history taking is challenging in elderly patients due to multiple comorbidities and cognitive impairment (Kohler et al., 2021).
Spirometry may underestimate severity in elderly due to poor effort from comorbidities (Mapel et al., 2015).
Chest CT is useful to detect emphysema in elderly patients (Mapel et al., 2015).
Treatment of COPD in the Elderly
Pharmacotherapy considerations for elderly include altered pharmacokinetics, polypharmacy, and drug interactions (Kohler et al., 2021).
Pulmonary rehabilitation benefits are seen but program participation is lower in elderly (Mapel et al., 2015).
Supplemental oxygen therapy is frequently needed in elderly with severe COPD (NHLBI, 2022).
Genetics of COPD in the Elderly
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an important genetic risk factor for early-onset COPD in the elderly (NHLBI, 2022).
Genetic testing should be considered in elderly COPD patients with a family history or early disease onset.
Patient Education for Elderly with COPD
Self-management education must be tailored to account for age-related changes in learning and cognition (Kohler et al., 2021).
Caregiver education is important as elderly often rely on family for support (NHLBI, 2022).
End-of-life care discussions should be initiated early in elderly COPD patients (GOLD, 2022).
Cultural Considerations in Caring for Elderly with COPD
Language barriers, health beliefs, and traditional remedies may impact care (Kohler et al., 2021).
Disparities exist in COPD diagnosis and treatment between ethnic elderly groups (CDC, 2022).
Religion and spirituality are important aspects of care planning for many elderly patients.
Exacerbations of COPD in the Elderly
Acute exacerbations are common in elderly and associated with increased morbidity and mortality (Mapel et al., 2015).
Timely treatment of exacerbations can help prevent respiratory failure, which carries a high risk of death in elderly (NHLBI, 2022).
Quality of Life Concerns in Elderly with COPD
COPD symptoms including dyspnea, cough, and fatigue severely impact daily activities and independence in elderly patients (Kohler et al., 2021).
Depression and social isolation are common in elderly with severe COPD (Mapel et al., 2015).
In conclusion, COPD poses significant challenges in the elderly population. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to optimize management, prevent exacerbations, maintain function, and support quality of life for this vulnerable group.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). COPD. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. (2022). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD. https://goldcopd.org/
Kohler, C. L., Fish, L., & Orenstein, D. (2021). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in older adults. American family physician, 103(1), 36–43.
Mapel, D. W., Hurley, J. S., Frost, F. J., Petersen, H. V., Picchi, M. A., & Coultas, D. B. (2015). Health care utilization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A case-control study in a health maintenance organization. Archives of internal medicine, 155(2), 185–193. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1995.00430020053008
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022). What is COPD? https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/copd
World Health Organization. (2022). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-(copd)
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