Posted: February 24th, 2023

War & Peace in Africa since 1990

Summative Assessments Guidelines

Module Title: War & Peace in Africa since 1990 at Masters Level
Assignment: Research Essay- 4,000 words

Topic: Assess the record of international peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts in Africa
General Guidance

Your assignments should be word processed (handwritten assignments are not accepted), using time new roman size 12 font, double spaced, with numbered pages and your student number printed as a footer on every page.

The word limits stated for these assignments excludes the reference list at the end of the assignments but includes all text in the main body of the assignment (including direct quotations, in-text citations, footnotes, tables, diagrams, and graphs).

Please be aware that exceeding the word count limit will affect the academic judgement of the piece of work and may result in the award of lower marks.
Appendices are not considered a supplement, and thus, will not be assessed as part of the content of the assignments.

As such, they will not contribute to the grades awarded, however it may be appropriate to use an Appendices section for the Essay, which is a useful reference for the reader.

Please note that appendices are not included in the word count.

Most references should come from primary sources (e.g., journal articles, conference papers, reports, etc.) although you can also utilise area specific textbooks.

In the Essay, you must ensure that you use the Harvard style of referencing.
Please indicate the word count length at the end of your assignments.

Marking and Assessment

Your summative assessments consist of two elements: a Research Essay (4,000 word-equivalent), due at the end of Week 4, as well as a Presentation (1,000 word-equivalent)- This will be done after review and feedback of the research essay.

While each of these two elements will be marked out of 100 points, the weighting for the assessment will be as follows: 80% for the Research Essay and 20% for the Presentation.

Learning outcomes assessed

• Critically analyse relevant academic sources in the area of interest.

• Critically reflect on own experience in the domain and provide discussion about how theoretical perspectives may affect practice.

Structure of the Research Essay

The Research Essay should include and cover these sections, aspects, and contents (as shown and stated in the table below).

The percentage mark allocated to each section/aspect of your work is stated below.

Title of Section
Further Explanation Marks Available
Cover Page ● Assignment name and personal details/topic. Include Table of contents 0

Introduction ● Introduce what the assignment’s plan and structure will be.
● Provide some background on your first thoughts and ideas.
Rationale ● Provide the context and the rationale of the literature review and possible debates around this research area. 20
Research Aims
and Questions ● Explain the aims and objectives of the plan and outline your
core research questions. 20

Methodology ● Explain your research strategy (How did you go about this? Books? Journals? Databases, etc?).
● Inclusion/Exclusion: criteria of literature for the review
(ensure the validity and reliability of the sources you will include in your Research Essay).

Literature review ● What did the literature tell you in relation to your question?
● Did anything startling come out of the review that you were
● not expecting? You will need to use the notes section to
● expand and use the literature to illustrate your findings. 20
Conclusions and Implications ● Try to summarise the literature review and discuss the
● implications and recommendations.
● This section should not include any new material. 10
Presentation ● Cover page, table of contents, page numbering, line spacing, font consistency, separation of paragraphs. 10

Since the 1990s, the African continent has seen a significant decrease in the number of armed conflicts and wars. This trend can be attributed to a variety of factors, including increased regional and international efforts towards conflict resolution and peacebuilding, as well as the establishment of various mechanisms and institutions aimed at promoting peace and security on the continent.

One of the key initiatives that has contributed to the reduction of conflicts in Africa is the African Union’s (AU) Peace and Security Council (PSC). Established in 2002, the PSC is responsible for promoting peace, security, and stability on the continent through a variety of measures, including preventive diplomacy, conflict resolution, and peacekeeping. The PSC has been instrumental in the resolution of numerous conflicts on the continent, including those in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

In addition to the efforts of the AU, there have also been significant contributions from regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), as well as international actors such as the United Nations (UN) and the African Development Bank (AfDB). These organizations have provided financial and technical assistance to countries in conflict, as well as support for post-conflict reconstruction and development.

The efforts towards peace and security in Africa over the past three decades have had a positive impact on the continent. While there are still ongoing conflicts and challenges, the number of armed conflicts has significantly decreased, and there have been numerous successes in achieving peace and stability.

International peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts in Africa have had a mixed record of success. On one hand, there have been numerous instances where these efforts have helped to bring an end to conflicts and promote stability in the region. For example, the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) played a key role in helping to end the country’s civil war in 2002 and facilitating the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants. Similarly, the African Union-led peacekeeping mission in Somalia (AMISOM) has helped to stabilize the country and improve security, allowing for the establishment of a functional government and the holding of elections.

However, there have also been instances where international peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts have not been as effective. One example is the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where multiple international interventions have failed to bring an end to the violence. There have also been instances where peacekeeping missions have been accused of abuse and misconduct, such as the sexual abuse scandals involving peacekeepers in the Central African Republic and Haiti.

While international peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts have had some successes in Africa, there is still much work to be done to address conflicts and promote stability in the region. It is important for these efforts to be well-planned and properly implemented, with adequate resources and support, in order to be effective.

Marking Criteria

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