Posted: March 28th, 2021

Discuss the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and the use of pharmacology.|Assessment#4unit#3

Write a 5–6-page article on a controversial topic related to pharmacology. Explain appropriate use of pharmacology; the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and the use of pharmacology; and how the topic affects communities and organizations. Describe inequities regarding access to pharmacological treatments.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
Show Less

Competency 1: Apply practice guidelines and standards of evidence-based practice related to pharmacology for safe and effective nursing practice.
Explain the appropriate use of pharmacology.
Competency 2: Explain the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and the appropriate use of pharmacology and psychopharmacology.
Explain the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and the use of pharmacology.
Explain how pharmacology affects communities and organizations.
Competency 3: Apply the principles and practices of cultural competence with regard to pharmacological interventions.
Describe inequities regarding access to pharmacology.
Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations of a nursing professional.
Write content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Correctly format paper, citations, and references using current APA style.

Competency Map
Check Your Progress
Use this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
Toggle Drawer

Professional nursing practice is based on knowledge that comes from research. This research provides nurses with strategies to better communicate with patients, as well as answers to questions such as the following:

What are the most effective pharmacological agents to treat hypertension in an elderly Latino patient?
How do home visits benefit the family of a child with a severe chronic illness?
Are there new pharmacological treatments for mental illness?

Health care is ever changing. Research helps nurses understand what those changes are and build on their knowledge base as they continue to provide quality care to their patients.
Toggle Drawer
Questions to Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community.

What role does nursing play in clinical trials during the development of a new drug?

Toggle Drawer
Suggested Resources

The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.
Capella Resources

APA Paper Template.
APA Paper Tutorial.

Library Resources

The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:

Bench, S., Day, T., & Metcalfe, A. (2013). Randomised controlled trials: An introduction for nurse researchers. Nurse Researcher, 20(5), 38–44.
Edwards, B., & Chakraborty, S. (2012). Risk communication and the pharmaceutical industry: What is the reality? Drug Safety, 35(11), 1027–1040.
Folmsbee, S. (2014, October 5). Folmsbee: Medical marijuana deserves research. University Wire. Retrieved from
Hoffmann, D. E., & Weber, E. (2010). Medical marijuana and the law. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362(16), 1453–1457.
Kubiszyn, T., & Mire, S. S. (2014). A review of recent FDA drug safety communications for pediatric psychotropics. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(4), 716–727.
Schwartz, L. M., & Woloshin, S. (2013). The drug facts box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(Supplement 3), 14069–14074.
Ward-Abel, N., Vernon, K., & Warner, R. (2014). An exciting era of treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 10(1), 21–28.
Doamekpor, L. A., & Zuckerman, D. M. (2012). Lack of diversity in cancer drug trials may exacerbate racial disparities in mortality rates. Cancer Epidemiology, 38(5), 645–646.
Kesselheim, A. S., & Avorn, J. (2012). The food and drug administration has the legal basis to restrict promotion of flawed comparative effectiveness research. Health Affairs, 31(10), 2200–2205.
Munro, C. L., & Savel, R. H. (2015). Measles 2015: Why public health matters to critical care. American Journal of Critical Care, 24(3), 192–194.

Show Less
Course Library Guide

A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the BSN-FP4016 – Pharmacology for Patient Safety Library Guide to help direct your research.
Bookstore Resources

The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation.

Burchum, J., & Rosenthal, L. (2016). Lehen’s pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
Chapters 3, 63, 96, 101, and 110.

Assessment Instructions

In your professional nursing practice, you will likely encounter both patients and coworkers whose personal or cultural views on pharmacology may be quite different from your own. Understanding the most current research on pharmacological topics will help you make informed choices.

For this assessment, imagine your supervisor asks you to write an article on a controversial topic for the organization’s monthly newsletter in which you review the most recent research on the topic. She stresses you must present a balanced overview and equally address the pros and cons of the topic.

Complete the following as you prepare to write your article:

Choose a topic from the list below:
The use of medical marijuana.
The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) versus traditional Western medicine.
Experimental drug programs and disease management.
Mandated vaccinations for children and the implications for parental choice not to vaccinate.
Search the Capella library and the Internet to locate peer-reviewed research articles on your selected topic. The information you use to support your work in this assessment must be as recent as possible.

Note: These are very broad topics. Limit your work to the scope of your practice and be mindful of the page-length requirements.

Once you have identified your topic, organize your article as you wish. Be sure to include the following:

Explain the appropriate use of the pharmacology related to the topic. Include elements such as diseases or health concerns associated with the topic and the efficacy and applicability of the pharmacology.
Explain the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and use of the pharmacology related to the topic. Remember to address both the benefits and limitations of the pharmacology in terms of specific diseases and populations.
Explain how the topic affects both the community and the organization in terms of promoting health and wellness.
Describe any inequities regarding access to the pharmacology related to the topic. Is access limited to specific groups or populations? Who determines access? On what is it based? Does access influence choice?

Follow APA guidelines to format this assessment. Include a title page and reference page.
Additional Requirements

Number of pages: 5–6 (no more than 7).
At least 4 current scholarly or professional resources.
Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced font.

Sample Answer
Research on Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the study of the effect of a drug on a biological system. The discussion on medical marijuana has been about the effects of its various components on human beings. A section of scholars argues that medical marijuana should be legalized since it helps in the treatment of various ailments such as cancer. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved or recognized marijuana as medicine. It has recommended that hundreds of research need to corroborate to ascertain the positive effects of the drug. Researchers have indicated that marijuana can be used to relieve pain, treat epilepsy, appetite loss, glaucoma, Alzheimer, and schizophrenia. Medical marijuana requires in-depth research to ascertain the effects on promoting health and wellness among patients.
Medical Marijuana
Medical marijuana is the use of the drug for medical purposes. It contains hundreds of components, but the two main elements used in the treatment of diseases include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as well as cannabidiol (CBD). The drug is used in the treatment of conditions such as epilepsy, appetite loss, glaucoma, Alzheimer, and schizophrenia (Thames et al., 2017). It is also used to relieve pain, treat nausea, and other diseases including multiple sclerosis, and multiple spasms. Research has shown that confirmed studies can show a significant positive effect on the ability to relieve chronic pain, nausea, and vomiting (Subramaniam, Menezes, DeSchutter & Lavie, 2019). The chemical elements have additional effects on the body including relieving tension, reduce inflammation, relax muscles, kill cancer cells and enhance appetite or weight gain among cancer patients. FDA has approved the use of Epidiolex to treat the severe seizure. The results indicated that the frequency of seizures dropped significantly after taking Epidiolex, which contains marijuana element cannabidiol (Kesler, 2019). Therefore, due to the significant strides made in the treatment of diseases using marijuana components, researchers believe the drug should be legalized to enhance treatment.
Medical marijuana has various health concerns including the negative effects on the body. For example, studies show that the drug can cause dizziness, depression, hallucinations, bloodshot eyes, and fast heartbeat (Quintas, 2019). The drug is also associated with euphoria and short-term memory. It has components that can cause poor coordination and wrong judgments which can lead to accidents. Additionally, when teenagers use marijuana it affects their mental function and Intellectual Quotient (IQ). Smoking the drug is compared to tobacco, which causes lung problems and increases chances of bronchitis (Mahvan et al., 2017). It is also considered a gateway drug since it is addictive. Therefore, it will lead to abuse of other destructive drugs that will compromise the health and wellness of an individual. Food and Drug Administration has been reluctant to approve the drug since it seems to have more negative compared to positive effects.
The drug has been subjected to controversy since the positive and negative sides seem to be confusing drug administration agency, researchers, medical practitioners, patients and policymakers (Sarvet et al., 2018). The controversy is due to the argument on the efficacy and applicability of the pharmacology. Despite the increasing legalization in various states, the drug has long-term effects on the brain such as impaired thinking and verbal ability. Additionally, people who abused the drug lost crucial mental abilities which were not restored after quitting the drug (Sarvet et al., 2018). Therefore, despite the campaign to promote legalization of the drug, pharmacological evidence from different studies suggest that it has negative significant effects on the human body.
Quality Patient Outcomes
Pro-marijuana advocates argue that the drug can be used to relieve chronic pain in patients especially those suffering from cancer. They have also indicated that patients with nausea or appetite problems can find solutions in marijuana (Thames et al., 2017). However, the overall patient outcomes may be affected due to the negative effects. The negative effects including addiction, loss of memory, euphoria, high heartbeat and loss of quality judgment can deter quality patient outcomes. The severe effects may, therefore, treat one condition and introduce another one (Thames et al., 2017). For example, people with heart disease are at risk of developing a heart attack after the consumption of the drug. Patient safety is compromised if a patient can develop a heart attack and die (Subramaniam, Menezes, DeSchutter & Lavie, 2019). Additionally, studies have suggested that marijuana can increase chances of stroke among patients suffering from chronic diseases. Therefore, the focus on quality patient outcomes may not be achieved since other severe conditions will emerge.
The drug has various limitations and benefits related to various diseases and populations. For example, Canadian Journal of Cardiology featured a case study of a 70-year-old man who lived for long with coronary artery disease (Kesler, 2019). One day he ate a lollipop with marijuana components. The purpose was to improve sleep and relieve the chronic pain he was experiencing. The result was that the man developed a heart attack which almost terminated his life. Therefore, despite the perceived benefits, marijuana has various limitations. Research has now shown the right amounts of the drug that people should take (Kesler, 2019). Another reason is that the drug is not legally accepted or approved by the FDA. Therefore, carrying out research on the drug is impractical since it requires a license. The drug has adverse effects on learning abilities and cognition of teenagers (Kesler, 2019). Additionally, the elderly can develop severe body changes such as increased heartbeat which can affect their conditions negatively.
Effects on Community and Organizations
Marijuana has adverse effects on the community since it affects individuals who disrupt the social fabrics of society. For example, it is associated with increased rebellion, aggression, and poor relationships in families. Studies show that families have broken up when one of the crucial members such as the parent or child was taking marijuana (Quintas, 2019). Additionally, since it is a gateway drug, it exposes a person to other drugs, which increases the likelihood of engaging in criminal activities. Most of the criminals who have been arrested with charges of robbery, rape, murder or violence had consumed marijuana in their life (Quintas, 2019). Therefore, it can affect the neighborhood since the people abusing the drugs will not make critical judgment thus disrupting peace. Studies carried out in the postal workers indicated that employees who had taken marijuana in their life had high tendency to cause workplace accidents, injuries and they also recorded the highest absenteeism (Mahvan et al., 2017). Therefore, the drug has adverse effects on the community starting with families, increased crime in society and poor performance in the workplace.
The drug has both positive and negative effects on the community and organization. The positive effects are minimal and they require further research to fill the current study gaps. It can enhance the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer by killing the cancerous cells (Mahvan et al., 2017). It can also be used by patients to relieve the pain. In the case of the organization, the drug can have adverse effects which include causing accidents, high-levels of absenteeism and poor performance. Healthcare organizations require professionals who can make critical judgments to improve the quality of patient outcomes (Sarvet et al., 2018). It is also important to note that the use of the drug can prohibit a professional from reporting to work which can affect the patients he or she was to attend. Additionally, if a patient with heart disease uses marijuana to reduce pain, they might develop a heart attack (Thames et al., 2017). The condition will cost the healthcare organization more funds to treat. Therefore, healthcare organizations and the community should be aware of the negative and positive impact of using marijuana to balance them appropriately.
Access to Marijuana
Access to marijuana is limited due to the laws that illegalize the drug. Therefore, individuals who are suffering from chronic pain cannot easily access marijuana to relieve their condition. The drug is also not accessible by scholars who want to research. The researchers are required to acquire a license before they can undertake research on the drug (Thames et al., 2017). The limitation has reduced access and consequently the number of studies carried out. The access is limited by the FDA which has not approved the use of marijuana. Patients who would have depended on the drug while in hospitals are forced to use the drug illegally. The illegal sale of marijuana is rampant in the country since drug cartels are aware of its demand (Subramaniam, Menezes, DeSchutter & Lavie, 2019). However, the cartels sell it at a higher price since they also risk imprisonment. Consequently, poor people who are struggling with chronic illnesses cannot access the drug.
Different states have legalized the use of cannabis but at the federal level, the government has not legalized the drug for medical or recreational purpose. However, despite the restrictions statistics indicate that every 48 seconds a person is arrested for possession or distribution of the drug (Subramaniam, Menezes, DeSchutter & Lavie, 2019). Access is limited to people below 21 years. For example, adults who are 21 years and above are allowed to possess one ounce of marijuana while in public in Oregon State (Kesler, 2019). However, statistics show that marijuana abuse among high school students is high. Additionally, the different states that have legalized the drug are in the process of enhancing access of cannabis to patients who are suffering from chronic diseases (Kesler, 2019). The access is determined by FDA which argues that sufficient research is unavailable to show the positive effects and negative effects of marijuana. Different states have also legalized it for recreational purposes and not medical purposes which limit access even upon accessing it (Quintas, 2019). Access to cannabis should be examined carefully to prevent adverse effects on the health of students or adults, which can affect the community.
The heated debate on the pharmacology of medical marijuana is decades old. However, until now the federal government is not convinced that the drug can be used to promote healthcare. Various states have legalized it mainly due to pressure on the leaders from the electorates. Drug cartels are also powerful and can influence the policies of such drugs to ensure they benefit financially. It is thus important to examine the positive and negative effects of the drug to prevent plunging the healthcare in a crisis. The government may also be exposed to increased healthcare costs since the people who take the drugs may be exposed to health complications, which eventually undermines patient outcomes.

Kesler, K. (2019). Marijuana issues for voters: Studying issues US states have had with legalizing marijuana. WRIT: GSW Journal of First-Year Writing, 2(2), 8.
Mahvan, T. D., Hilaire, M. L., Mann, A., Brown, A., Linn, B., Gardner, T., & Lai, B. (2017). Marijuana use in the elderly: implications and considerations. The Consultant Pharmacist®, 32(6), 341-351.
Quintas, A. (2019). Should we legalize marijuana? Ten years of learning from JWH-018 first seizure. Annals of Medicine, 51(sup1), 178-178.
Sarvet, A. L., Wall, M. M., Fink, D. S., Greene, E., Le, A., Boustead, A. E., … & Hasin, D. S. (2018). Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 113(6), 1003-1016.
Subramaniam, V. N., Menezes, A. R., DeSchutter, A., & Lavie, C. J. (2019). The cardiovascular effects of marijuana: are the potential adverse effects worth the high? Missouri Medicine, 116(2), 146.
Thames, A. D., Kuhn, T. P., Williamson, T. J., Jones, J. D., Mahmood, Z., & Hammond, A. (2017). Marijuana effects on changes in brain structure and cognitive function among HIV+ and HIV− adults. Drug and alcohol dependence, 170, 120-127.


Order for this Paper or Similar Assignment Writing Help

Fill a form in 3 easy steps - less than 5 mins.

Why choose us

You Want Best Quality and That’s our Focus

Top Essay Writers

We carefully choose the most exceptional writers to become part of our team, each with specialized knowledge in particular subject areas and a background in academic writing.

Affordable Prices

Our priority is to provide you with the most talented writers at an affordable cost. We are proud to offer the lowest possible pricing without compromising the quality of our services. Our costs are fair and competitive in comparison to other writing services in the industry.

100% Plagiarism-Free

The service guarantees that all our products are 100% original and plagiarism-free. To ensure this, we thoroughly scan every final draft using advanced plagiarism detection software before releasing it to be delivered to our valued customers. You can trust us to provide you with authentic and high-quality content.

How it works

When you decide to place an order with Nursing Assignment Answers, here is what happens:

Complete the Order Form

You will complete our order form, filling in all of the fields and giving us as much detail as possible.

Assignment of Writer

We analyze your order and match it with a writer who has the unique qualifications to complete it, and he begins from scratch.

Order in Production and Delivered

You and your writer communicate directly during the process, and, once you receive the final draft, you either approve it or ask for revisions.

Giving us Feedback (and other options)

We want to know how your experience went. You can read other clients’ testimonials too. And among many options, you can choose a favorite writer.